Are virtual scenarios the same as simulations?
Virtual scenarios can be considered as part of simulations. Hi-fidelity simulations, such as flight simulators or patient care manikins, frequently require integration to simpler tools, such as virtual scenarios. The integrated scenarios can be then used to control and drive the simulation session. On the other hand, there are also standalone virtual scenarios delivered through some interactive software (virtual scenario delivery system, e.g. OpenLabyrinth or Casus) and these can serve as a simulation modality for developing soft skills such as decision making, critical thinking and reasoning. Careful integration of low- and hi-fidelity simulation modalities can lead to maximization of the pedagogical value of simulation. The integration can be achieved by placing the different simulation modalities into the curriculum at the time when it is of most relevance.
What are the key papers or researchers in the research literature which evaluated the pedagogic effectiveness of SBL?
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of scenario-based learning have been conducted in specific disciplines as health professions education. In the meta-analysis by David Cook and colleagues (Acad Med. 2010 Oct;85(10):1589-602) the conclusion was that the change in knowledge, clinical reasoning and skills is positive and large when compared virtual patients with no intervention. The conclusions regarding other types of instruction were inconclusive. The meta-analysis conducted by Fabrizio Consorti and colleagues was even more positive showing benefits of using virtual patients as an additional element of the curriculum and when compared with alternative methods of education (Computers & Education, 2012, 59(3), 1001-1008). Ruth C. Clark devotes a chapter in her book on Scenario-based e-Learning (Pfeiffer; 2012) on summarising the evidence on the effectiveness of virtual scenarios in other than medical disciplines.
Where can i find resources (images, videos, or other media) to include or develop my virtual scenario?
There are many images and other media resources available on the web that you can use to enhance your scenarios. Of course, with smartphones available it can be increasingly easy to create your own media resources; the range of cameras and editing software on mobile devices makes it possible to create pictures, audio files or videos directly tailored to your teaching.
However, if you would like to reuse existing materials available on the web, the most important thing is to ensure that, once you have found a resource on the web, you have permission to use it. This can be by requesting permission from the copyright owner directly, or more commonly, searching for resources that are made available under a Creative Commons licence. Creative Commons www.creativecommons.org allows content owners to permit reuse of the materials in specified ways, and there is a huge amount of content available under these terms. The page at https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/licensing-types-examples/ explains more about the types of licence available. Please also be aware that, if you are using identifiable images in a healthcare context, you must apply to local ethical guidelines for their use.
To help you actually find material, sites such as Wikimedia and Pixabay are good sources of images that are high quality. Doing a Google Image search, you can specify that you want results that are Licensed for reuse, and the Creative Commons website provides a tool to allow you to easily search a number of sites for licensed material at https://creativecommons.org/use-remix/. Finally, popular video sharing sites such as YouTube and Vimeo provide embedding tools, so that you can embed videos directly from there into your scenarios.
What is LTI and why do we need it?
LTI stands for Learning Tools Interoperability. It is a technical standard proposed by the IMS Global Learning Consortium that enables students and educators to connect securely from their virtual learning environments (called in the LTI parlance: “Tool Consumer”) to external educational tools (called in the specification “Tool Providers”). Examples of virtual learning environments that might serve as tool providers are Moodle, Canvas or Blackboard Learn. Systems that enable authoring and playback virtual scenarios as CASUS or OpenLabyrinth are perfect examples for LTI Tool Providers. The advantage of using an LTI link is that the tool consumer and provider automatically and securely exchange authorisation data of the user so that there is no need for the users to enter once again their login credentials while opening a virtual scenario from the course in a virtual learning environment. The tool provider is able to recognise the user is accessing the service again and offer personalisation services (e.g. to resume an interrupted session of using the tool). It is also possible (even though not always implemented) that the tool feeds back a report (e.g. final scores) depending on the performance of the student in the external tool.
Why do you need to integrate VS in learning platforms?
In order to successfully deliver e-learning resources in a healthcare context an important factor to consider is accessibility. VS may be integrated with learning platforms to meet accessibility requirements. One of the requirements is a Single Sign-On mechanism (SSO) for institution-wide access to e-learning tools so that the learners accessing the VS do not need a separate authentication mechanism. Integration can be achieved partially or fully by applying e–learning standards. Integrating VS into learning platforms can offer to the learners the opportunity to access all learning resources with one authentication mechanism and hence provide various learning opportunities. From the user perspective, the moment of entering the VS system is unnoticeable, which saves time and improves user satisfaction with the learning experience. This feature is useful both for instructors and learners and is a prerequisite for the implementation of more advanced functions.
Who is the target group for the Scenario-Based Learning (SBL) course? How will it benefit educators?
The course developed as part of the project is called “Using virtual scenarios to create effective learning" This free online course is being delivered on the FutureLearn platform. The course is designed to introduce the learners to scenario-based learning and in particular to virtual scenarios to deliver the SBL for teaching or training. The course is open for any individual interested in finding out more about SBL, regardless of their background or discipline in which they work.
The learners on the course will gain knowledge of the SBL concept, learn about different elements of virtual scenarios which make them effective and will also be introduced to technologys, tips and tools to author their own virtual scenario. Thought out the course learners can engage with fellow learners on the course and the educators of the course.
Do i need to pay to use a virtual scenario system?
No. There are Virtual Scenario systems that are free to deploy and use in your institution. There are also systems that offer different features, setup and support options, that are commercially marketed. Likewise, specific virtual scenarios can be found, either free of charge, or commercially marketed, providing various options for you.
Is it important to embed videos into my virtual scenario?
You may have seen some of our exemplar scenarios which include videos in them but it is important to note not all of them contain videos. Videos are a great way to engage learners however they don’t always add to the learning or training so it is not required. It is always best to start off simple and then think about what the video is adding to the resource before developing it and implementing video into your scenario.
What is the link between virtual scenarios and virtual patients?
Virtual scenario is a generic term; it can be applied to any scenario i whether it be linked to law, architecture biochemistry, business models or indeed any subject or topic where there is a need to make some sort of choice.or take some sort of action. In a virtual patient the narrative and interactivity are focused upon the story of a person or persons with some form of illness, symptoms, or pathology,.whether real or imagined. Usually the challenge is to find the most appropriate way to manage the patient’s condition.